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Previewing the Blue Blood Supermoon Eclipse of January 2018 Using Mobile Apps

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Mobile astronomy apps such as SkySafari 6 are an ideal tool to preview celestial events. The total lunar eclipse on the morning of Jan. 31, 2018 features an enlarged supermoon. It’s also a Blue Moon, the second full moon in January — a combination that hasn’t occurred in many years. In the eastern US and Canada, the moon will set mid-eclipse. But skywatchers in the west will be able to watch the entire eclipse, as shown here near the end of the eclipse at 6:15 a.m. PST in San Francisco, CA. By telling you where in the sky it will occur, your astronomy app can help you plan to observe or photograph any eclipse.

In 2018, the world will experience three partial solar eclipses and two total lunar eclipses — but whether you can see them depends on where you live. The first event is a total lunar eclipse that happens on the morning of Jan. 31. This eclipse will be special! The moon will be both “super” and “blue,” and if skies are clear, skywatchers in North America will be able to see all or part of the eclipse.

In this edition of Mobile Astronomy, we’ll highlight the rare “Blue Blood Supermoon” total lunar eclipse and tell you how to use your favorite astronomy app to preview it. We’ll also help you use your app to explore how lunar eclipses work. [Super Blue Blood Moon 2018: When, Where and How to See It]

On Jan. 31, 2018, skywatchers across much of the world will receive a postholiday gift: the total lunar eclipse of a full supermoon that is also a Blue Moon! Unlike last summer’s Great American Total Solar Eclipse, lunar eclipses are completely safe to look at because the sun is below the horizon. Any sunlight that reaches the eclipsed moon has to pass over the Earth’s horizon, panting the moon with reddish light — hence the nickname “blood moon” for eclipsed moons. 

Due to the moon’s elliptical orbit, its distance from Earth varies by about 12 percent, bringing it closer (perigee) and farther (apogee) during every 27.3 day circuit of Earth. The moon runs through its phases on a separate cycle of 29.5 days. From time to time, the two cycles synchronize for a few months, allowing the moon to be full while near perigee, causing it to be up to 30 percent brighter and 7 percent larger than average. The three full moons in December 2017 and January 2018 are all supermoons.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

This total lunar eclipse occurs only 1.2 days after perigee (the moon’s closest approach to Earth), so the moon’s diameter will appear about 7 percent larger than average, making it a “supermoon.” The full moon will also be a Blue Moon — the second full moon to occur within the calendar month. Eclipsed supermoons aren’t all that rare, but the total eclipse of a Blue Moon hasn’t occurred since March 31, 1866. That’s 152 years! Don’t let the nickname mislead you, though — the moon won’t look blue at all.

The entire eclipse will be visible from northwestern North America, across the Pacific Ocean, and as far as eastern Siberia and Asia. Most of North America will see a portion of the eclipse before the moon sets and morning twilight arrives, while Eastern Europe and Central Asia will see the eclipse already in progress when the moon rises. During totality, when the moon is fully in shadow, the moon’s northern limb will pass just south of the center of the Earth’s shadow, darkening the moon’s northern half more than its southern half. 

To find out whether the eclipse will be visible where you live and to preview what it will look like, use an astronomy app such as SkySafari 6, Star Walk 2 or Stellarium Mobile.. Open the app, and then search for and center the moon — don’t worry if it’s below the horizon for now. Next, set the app’s date to Jan. 31, 2018, and the app’s time to about 1 a.m. in your local time zone. For locations in North America, the app will show the moon high in the night sky. Zoom in on the display until the moon shows as a good-sized disk. 

The free Solar System Scope app features a 3D model of the solar system that you can manipulate to better understand the motions of the moon and planets. You can select a specific date and time, or allow time to flow forwards and watch things move. Here, the Jan. 31, 2018 total lunar eclipse is modeled. The software is available in both browser and mobile versions, and includes a sky chart mode for night-time skywatchers.

The free Solar System Scope app features a 3D model of the solar system that you can manipulate to better understand the motions of the moon and planets. You can select a specific date and time, or allow time to flow forwards and watch things move. Here, the Jan. 31, 2018 total lunar eclipse is modeled. The software is available in both browser and mobile versions, and includes a sky chart mode for night-time skywatchers.

Credit: Solar System Scope

By running time forward, or by stepping hour by hour, you can watch the moon become eclipsed and then lighten again as it leaves the Earth’s shadow. The moon’s edge will start to darken at 6:48 a.m. EST (1148 GMT). Maximum eclipse occurs at 8:30 a.m. EST (1330 GMT), and the eclipse ends at 10:11 a.m. EST (1511 GMT). For skywatchers in the eastern United States, the moon will set before maximum eclipse, but you can see the entire eclipse by removing the horizon and turning off daylight using the app’s settings.

If you plan to view the actual eclipse, or photograph it, use your app to note the direction and how high above the horizon the moon will be during the event. That way, you can scout out a viewing spot where the moon will be visible throughout the eclipse duration.

Understanding how lunar eclipses work is easy if your app allows you to display the invisible circles representing the full and partial shadows that Earth casts into space. In the SkySafari 6 app, the setting is located under Settings > Solar System > Orbits, Paths & Shadows. Enable the Earth & Moon Shadow Circles, and exit Settings. The smallest circle is the zone, or umbra, where the sun is completely blocked by the Earth. The larger circle is the penumbra, the region where some of the sun is still shining on objects passing through it. 

Sunlight shining on the solid globe of Earth casts a circular shadow, or umbra, into space. The shadow is always opposite the sun and near the ecliptic (yellow line), which defines the plane of Earth's orbit around the sun. The moon's orbit (gray line) is tilted 5 degrees away from the ecliptic. Whenever full moons occur close to the point in space where the moon's orbit and ecliptic intersect, a lunar eclipse can occur. While the moon is passing through the smaller white circle, only sunlight that has been reddened as it refracts over the Earth's horizon reaches it — painting it a blood red color. The larger circle, or penumbra, represents the region where some direct sunlight still reaches the moon.

Sunlight shining on the solid globe of Earth casts a circular shadow, or umbra, into space. The shadow is always opposite the sun and near the ecliptic (yellow line), which defines the plane of Earth’s orbit around the sun. The moon’s orbit (gray line) is tilted 5 degrees away from the ecliptic. Whenever full moons occur close to the point in space where the moon’s orbit and ecliptic intersect, a lunar eclipse can occur. While the moon is passing through the smaller white circle, only sunlight that has been reddened as it refracts over the Earth’s horizon reaches it — painting it a blood red color. The larger circle, or penumbra, represents the region where some direct sunlight still reaches the moon.

Credit: SkySafari App

Even though the moon is relatively small compared with the size of Earth’s shadow, the moon usually misses it. That shadow always lies near the ecliptic, which defines the plane of Earth’s orbit around the sun. The moon’s orbit is tilted about 5 degrees from the ecliptic. Lunar eclipses can occur only if the moon is full while it is near the point in space where the moon’s orbit crosses the ecliptic.

If you flow time forward, you can watch how, during this lunar eclipse, the moon’s orbit carries it eastward through the penumbra and umbra, and out the opposite side. During partial lunar eclipses, the moon never fully enters the umbra. [How to Photograph a Total Lunar Eclipse (A Moon Photo Guide)]

A second total lunar eclipse occurs on July 27. This one is only 0.6 days after apogee (the moon’s farthest distance from Earth), so the moon’s apparent diameter will be near its minimum. The moon will cross just north of the center of Earth’s umbral shadow, setting up conditions for a very dark eclipsed moon. At greatest eclipse, the moon will be among the stars of Capricorn, sitting 6 degrees north of Mars, which will be close to maximum brightness. The eclipsed moon will also be positioned within 10 degrees of three deep sky objects, Messiers 75, 72, and 73. They should be visible in binoculars during maximum eclipse.

Using Astronomy apps to preview lunar eclipses allow you to discover additional interesting aspects of the events. The total lunar eclipse of July 27, 2018 coincides with the opposition of Mars. The blood moon and the very bright Red Planet will make a wonderful sight and photo opportunity for observers where the eclipse is visible. When fully immersed in the Earth's shadow, the darkened full moon will also allow fainter deep sky objects to appear, such as the nearby Messier objects shown here. For skywatchers in Madagascar, the maximum eclipsed moon will be high in the sky, close to the Zenith (green cross).

Using Astronomy apps to preview lunar eclipses allow you to discover additional interesting aspects of the events. The total lunar eclipse of July 27, 2018 coincides with the opposition of Mars. The blood moon and the very bright Red Planet will make a wonderful sight and photo opportunity for observers where the eclipse is visible. When fully immersed in the Earth’s shadow, the darkened full moon will also allow fainter deep sky objects to appear, such as the nearby Messier objects shown here. For skywatchers in Madagascar, the maximum eclipsed moon will be high in the sky, close to the Zenith (green cross).

Credit: SkySafari App

If you’re observing from North America, you will not see any of this eclipse, but you can preview it on your app anytime and then watch the event livestreamed over the internet. The entire eclipse will be visible from Africa, the Middle East, India and western Australia. Observers in eastern Australia and Southeast Asia will see a portion of the eclipse before the moon sets and morning twilight arrives, while for Europe and eastern South America, the eclipse will be already in progress when the moon rises. The partial eclipse begins at 1824 GMT, the greatest eclipse is at 2022 GMT and the partial eclipse ends at 2219 GMT. To use your app, either hide the ground and turn off daylight, or change your app’s location settings to somewhere the eclipse is visible. It’s fun! 

You can safely preview solar eclipses with mobile apps, too. This year’s two partial solar eclipses occur on Feb. 15, July 13, and August 11. The first two are best visible from Antarctica, and the third one peaks over the North Pole, so using your app will be much less trouble!

In future editions of Mobile Astronomy, we’ll preview more 2018 highlights, including opportunities to see Mercury, the dance of Jupiter’s moons and some possible naked-eye comets at year’s end. We’ll also cover how to measure stars’ distances, and some whimsical asterisms — star groupings that are not constellations. Until then, keep looking up!

Editor’s note: Chris Vaughan is an astronomy public outreach and education specialist at AstroGeo, a member of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, and an operator of the historic 74″ (1.88-meter) David Dunlap Observatory telescope. You can reach him via email, and follow him on Twitter @astrogeoguy, as well as on Facebook and Tumblr.

This article was provided by Simulation Curriculum, the leader in space science curriculum solutions and the makers of the SkySafari app for Android and iOS. Follow SkySafari on Twitter @SkySafariAstro. Follow us @Spacedotcom, Facebook and Google+. Original article on Space.com.

Space.com is the premier source of space exploration, innovation and astronomy news, chronicling (and celebrating) humanity's ongoing expansion across the final frontier. We transport our visitors across the solar system and beyond through accessible, comprehensive coverage of the latest news and discoveries. For us, exploring space is as much about the journey as it is the destination. So from skywatching guides and stunning photos of the night sky to rocket launches and breaking news of robotic probes visiting other planets, at Space.com you’ll find something amazing every day.

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Astronomical Odds: Becoming an Astrophysicist Keeps Getting Tougher

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The dazzling star TYC 3203-450-1, in the constellation Lacerta, shines much closer to Earth than the distant galaxy NGC 7250, also visible in this Hubble Space Telescope image.

Paul Sutter is an astrophysicist at The Ohio State University and the chief scientist at COSI science center. Sutter is also host of “Ask a Spaceman” and “Space Radio,” and leads AstroTours around the world. Sutter contributed this article to Space.com’s Expert Voices: Op-Ed & Insights.

Ah, the life of an astrophysicist. The money. The parties. The paparazzi. No wonder so many young people flock to their nearest large research universities with stars in their eyes and dreams of Nobels in their hearts, buoyed by fantasies of solving the mystery of dark energy or cracking the enigma of quantum gravity. 

It’s true, sitting at the forefront of academic research is a unique, and sometimes thrilling, position. You are pushing the boundaries of human knowledge, and every experimental result, theoretical insight or recorded observation brings us closer to working out nature’s secrets. And for a moment, scientific discovery is a very private experience. Until you share your results with your colleagues in the community and the public in the wider world, you are the only human on the planet to know that fact, that insight, that datum. [8 Baffling Astronomy Mysteries]

And once you release that information, the volume of humanity’s understanding grows, most times by just a little, but sometimes by quite a lot. And at the end of your career, whether you end your journey as a young, freshly minted Ph.D. setting out into industry or a weathered and wizened emeritus professor, you can rest easy, knowing that academics and non-academics around the world are better off for your work.

Except, there are no jobs. At least, there are very few open faculty or research-lab positions for the people who want them (i.e., young Ph.D. holders). This isn’t new; academic jobs have always been on the rare side. But with the growth of university populations in the past decades, there is a glut of bachelors from all majors, including astronomy and physics. For example, there were roughly twice as many physics bachelor degrees awarded in 2015 than in 1995. And the increased undergraduate population has opened up funds for departments to host more graduate students, who do the majority of the teaching assistantship work. 

So, there are more Ph.D. grads created than ever before, but the same amount of — or fewer — long-term research jobs. Adding to the mix is the postdoctoral research position (often abbreviated as “postdoc”), a temporary job lasting two to five years in which you work to prove yourself as an independent researcher worthy of a faculty position.

The concept of a postdoc isn’t a bad one: How far can you fly without your advisor as the wind beneath your wings? A postdoc also gives you some experience working with a different group other than your graduate institution, so the interconnected web of worldwide researchers grows more tightly knit.

You would think that with a lot of Ph.D. holders and not a lot of long-term jobs, there wouldn’t be a lot of short-term postdoc positions. And that used to be the case; it was generally very tough and very competitive to get a postdoc, but if you did, you would most likely end up in a faculty position somewhere.

But in recent decades, with physical science research funding generally stalling or falling, it’s easier for a department, lab, or center to make a case for a term-limited grant with a small set of objectives than ask for the big bucks necessary for a lifetime, open-ended faculty position. The result: more postdoc positions. So now the field is in a state where about half the newly-minted Ph.D.’s slide right into a postdoc position.

Which is good! If you’re really into short-term positions. But now there are still a lot of faculty-wannabes in the system, and still not enough positions for them. There’s money for continued postdoc positions, creating a dangerous trend: Instead of the old “Ph.D. -> small chance of a postdoc -> faculty” pipeline, we have a “Ph.D. -> postdoc -> second postdoc -> maybe another postdoc -> small chance of a faculty job” system.

The result is the same: Most people with a Ph.D. in physics or astronomy won’t end up in a job in that field. This isn’t necessarily a bad thing, except that the harsh cutoff no longer comes when you’re a fresh-faced, probably single 20-something, able to easily and nimbly pivot to another career. Now, the people getting nudged out of the system are in their 30s, haven’t had a stable job for a decade, might be married, might want to start raising a family, and are generally making far less money than peers in their age and skill group.

And if you do get a faculty position, it’s another five years before your tenure review finally cements your career. Some unscrupulous universities even intentionally hire two junior faculty on a track for the same long-term professorship, taking a “two scientists enter, one scientist leaves” approach to fostering top talent.

For a graduate student or postdoc, this career path is not that rewarding. You get built up assuming you’re training for a career in academia, get a degree, then continue to be shunted from position to position. You get to do what you love, true, but with a clock always ticking in the background, reminding you that your time at the scientific forefront is probably nearing an end.

If that’s the system we have, then that’s the system we have, whether I think it’s fair or not. Some people think that a brief time as an active researcher is enough, and more power to them. And a bachelor’s or Ph.D. in physics or astronomy is a major asset for many kinds of jobs in industry, from finance to writing to consulting to Silicon Valley. Many science trainees are able to smoothly transition to a new life, making rewarding (both financially and mentally) lives for themselves. They also tend to make more money, which is nice.

Promising young students are more than welcome to take a chance at the academic wheel of fortune — assuming they know how the game is played. But we’re doing a very bad job at educating undergraduate and graduate students about the prospects of an academic career and what they might have to sacrifice (stability, money, relationships) in order to attain a professorship, and what other noble (rather than Nobel) options might await them with their degrees.

If we want the astrophysics community to thrive and attract new generations of scientists with new insights and new abilities — and especially if we want to encourage youngsters to explore STEM careers — then we first have to be honest about the state of our field.

Learn more by listening to the episode “Why can’t I be an astrophysicist?” on the “Ask a Spaceman” podcast, available on iTunes and on the web at http://www.askaspaceman.com. Thanks to @92Rufino and Vicki K. for the questions that led to this piece! Ask your own question on Twitter using #AskASpaceman or by following Paul @PaulMattSutter and facebook.com/PaulMattSutter.

Follow us @Spacedotcom, Facebook and Google+. Original article on Space.com

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Enormous 'El Gordo' Galaxy Cluster Captured in Hubble Image

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The enormous “El Gordo” galaxy cluster, officially called ACT-CLJ0102-4915, has the mass of 3 million billion suns.

An incredible photo from the Hubble Space Telescope showcases an enormous galaxy cluster that weighs in at a whopping 3 million billion suns.

Due to its massive size, the galaxy cluster has been nicknamed “El Gordo” (Spanish for “the fat one”). Research suggests the cluster is the largest, hottest and brightest X-ray galaxy cluster ever discovered in the distant universe, NASA officials said in a statement

Galaxy clusters, groups of galaxies held together by gravity, are the biggest objects in the distant universe. These clusters take billions of years to form, as smaller groups of galaxies slowly move closer to each other, NASA officials said in the statement. 

The El Gordo galaxy cluster — officially known as ACT-CL J0102-4915 — is located more than 7 billion light-years from Earth. The cluster was first discovered in 2012 by a trio of telescopes, the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope, NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope in Chile. These observations showed that El Gordo is actually the product of two galaxy clusters, which are in the process of colliding at a speed of millions of kilometers per hour, according to the statement. 

Dark matter and dark energy are believed to heavily influence the formation and evolution of galaxy clusters. Therefore, studying these clusters can help astronomers learn more about the elusive phenomenon, NASA officials said in the statement.

In fact, observations made by Hubble in 2014 showed that most of El Gordo’s mass is concealed in the form of dark matter, according to the statement. 

“Evidence suggests that El Gordo’s ‘normal’ matter — largely composed of hot gas that is bright in the X-ray wavelength domain — is being torn from the dark matter in the collision,” NASA officials said in the statement. “The hot gas is slowing down, while the dark matter is not.” 

The recent image, released by NASA on Jan. 16, was captured using Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide-Field Camera 3. El Gordo is one of 41 giant galaxy clusters surveyed as part of the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS), which is a joint observing program led by the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes, according to the NASA statement.

RELICS is designed to search for the brightest distant galaxies in the universe. This data will be used to identify faraway clusters of interest for further study by the James Webb Space Telescope, which is scheduled to launch sometime in the spring of 2019. 

Follow Samantha Mathewson @Sam_Ashley13. Follow us @Spacedotcom, Facebook and Google+. Original article on Space.com.

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New National Defense Strategy to Shed Light on Pentagon's Thinking About War in Space

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Defense Secretary Jim Mattis at U.S. Northern Command headquarters in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

WASHINGTON — Space and cyber warfare moved up the national security priority list during the Obama administration, and are expected to rank even higher under the Trump presidency.

Details on how the military views outer space and cyberspace as battlefronts in future wars should emerge in the national defense strategy that Defense Secretary Jim Mattis is expected to unveil Friday.

The national defense strategy — a forward-looking take on the challenges facing the U.S. military and how it is posturing itself to tackle those threats — is what used to be known as the QDR, or Quadrennial Defense Review. Congress last year determined that the QDR had no real value and asked the Pentagon to provide instead a more candid picture of its global commitments and requirements. The thinking is that lawmakers need to better understand what resources are needed for the military to fulfill those responsibilities. [The Most Powerful Space Weapons Concepts]

Andrew Philip Hunter, director of the Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, said space and cyber are likely to feature prominently in Secretary Mattis’ first national defense strategy.

In the first year of the Trump administration, space, cyber and missile defense have “really risen on the scope as modernization priorities,” Hunter said Wednesday at a CSIS news conference. Although it is still not clear that the rhetoric about the importance of space and cyber will be matched by policy and funding.

The next Pentagon’s budget could be a show-me moment.

Space and cyber are “new investment categories that are trying to displace, to some extent, existing force structure,” he said. Defense leaders and strategists have said the military needs to invest in modern technology to improve data analysis, intelligence, surveillance and other information-centric capabilities. But most of the Pentagon’s budget today is spent on old-school weapons. This creates a dilemma for the administration as it tries to position the military to win in the so-called “great power competition” against Russia and China.

“In order to dramatically increase investment in space, the Air Force will probably be required to reduce the size of its tactical fighter fleet in order to be able to afford that kind of investment,” Hunter said. “All of the services are being forced to reallocate force structure into the cyber mission in a pretty major way. That’s hard to do.”

Shifting resources away from traditional military systems to emerging areas of warfare like space and cyber will require some heavy political muscle, Hunter said. “That means it has to come from the secretary,” he added. “Left to their own devices, it’s very hard for the services to make that tradeoff. And that’s why, if it’s not articulated in the strategy, if it’s not coming from the secretary, it’s probably not going to happen.”

The new strategy also may begin to answer questions that the space and arms-control communities have been asking for a long time, such as how the military plans to deter attacks as space becomes more militarized,

That is the “big, burning issue that has not been resolved,” said Todd Harrison, director of the Aerospace Security Project and senior fellow at CSIS.

“What are we going to do in space to reestablish or improve a stable deterrent posture?” Harrison asked. “We do not want to fight a war in space. That’s a war that’s not going to go well for anyone,” he insisted. “If you know anything about orbital mechanics and orbital debris, we don’t want it to go there.” Military leaders have made this point as well.

How the Pentagon would deter future enemies from launching attacks in space in unclear, said Harrison. “And we’re at a point now where deterrence is not as clear that it will work in space,” he said. “We’re worried about that. The Department of Defense is worried about that.” He wonders whether this strategy will help reestablish a stable “deterrence posture” in space.

In a leaked draft copy of the soon-to-be-released Nuclear Posture Review, the administration highlights the risks that, if a nuclear crisis erupted, U.S. adversaries would immediately target key strategic space assets such as missile-warning and command-and-control satellites.

“In the nuclear realm, it’s long been understood that if you’re actually getting into a nuclear conflict, that of course both sides are going to try to take out the space assets of the other,” Harrison said. “If you’re at that point, the gloves are off.”

That concern is not new, he noted. But deterrence in space has become more challenging for the United States because the same satellites are used for strategic and tactical missions. Classified communications and intelligence gathering satellites that were created to support a nuclear war routinely are employed in conventional missions.

What the Trump administration has to address, Harrison said, is “how do we architect these systems to do what we need them to do in a nuclear crisis, but also to be resilient to attack in a nonnuclear crisis?”

During the Cold War, only the Soviets posed a credible threat to U.S. space systems. “And we basically had an understanding between the two countries: ‘If you attack our space systems, we’re going to regard that as a prelude of a full-scale nuclear war.” The world today is different, and the U.S. military has become hugely dependent on space, even for low-intensity counterinsurgency operations.

“So why wouldn’t an adversary, even a non-state actor, try to disrupt these systems?” Harrison asked. “And we’ve seen evidence of that, things like jamming our satellite-communications signals in Iraq and Afghanistan,” he said. “It is a much more complicated deterrence problem that we have today. We can’t simply assume that the threat of nuclear retaliation is going to deter someone from interfering with our space systems.”

Deterrence is even more difficult as anonymous cyber attacks can disrupt satellites signals. “You can’t prove it,” said Harrison. “There’s not something blowing up. It’s photons interfering with one another,” he said. “Can we really deter those types of attacks anymore?” And when deterrence fails, “we need architectures in space that can withstand attacks, that are resilient.” Further, “we need a posture that makes us more credible that we can deter these types of actions.”

This story was provided by SpaceNews, dedicated to covering all aspects of the space industry.

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US Air Force's New Missile-Warning Satellite Launching Tonight: Watch It Live

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A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket carrying the new SBIRS GEO Fight 4 missile- warning satellite stands atop Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida ahead of a scheduled Jan. 18, 2018, launch.

The U.S. Air Force’s newest early-warning satellite for missile defense will launch into space from Florida tonight (Jan. 18), and you can watch the action live online.

A United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket will launch the new military satellite, called the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) GEO Flight 4, from Space Launch Complex 41 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Liftoff is scheduled for 7:52 p.m. EST (0052 GMT on Jan. 19).

ULA will provide a live launch webcast beginning at 7:32 p.m. EST (0032 GMT). You can watch it live on Space.com here, or directly from ULA’s YouTube channel.

Built by Lockheed Martin, SBIRS GEO Flight 4 is the fourth member of a growing constellation of early-warning satellites designed to detect the launch of ballistic missiles from space. The satellites fly in geostationary orbits, and carry powerful scanning and infrared surveillance gear to track missile launches from orbit. 

The first two satellites, SBIRS GEO Flights 1 and 2, have been operational since 2013. SBIRS GEO Flight 3 launched in January 2017. Two other satellites, SBIRS GEO Flights 5 and 6, are expected to follow.

The Space Based Infrared System GEO Flight 4 missile-warning satellite is seen during assembly and test at Lockheed Martin’s satellite manufacturing facility in Sunnyvale, California.

Credit: Lockheed Martin

“SBIRS provides our military with timely, reliable and accurate missile warning and infrared surveillance information,” Tom McCormick, vice president of Lockheed Martin’s Overhead Persistent Infrared systems mission area, said in a Nov. 28 statement when SBIRS GEO Flight 4 was shipped to its Florida launch site. “We look forward to adding GEO Flight 4’s capabilities to the first line of defense in our nation’s missile defense strategy.”

Email Tariq Malik at tmalik@space.com or follow him @tariqjmalik and Google+. Follow us @Spacedotcom, Facebook and Google+. Original article on Space.com.

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